1. Introduction

1.1. Copyright Information

Copyright © 2002-2003 Sayamindu Dasgupta, Jan Stifter. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections , with no Front-Cover Texts , and with no Back-Cover Texts . A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

1.2. Disclaimer

The methods described in this document might damage your data or your PC or both. The authors will not be responsible for any damage that might arise out of the use of this document. Use this document ENTIRELY at your own risk.

All copyrights are held by their respective owners, unless specifically noted otherwise. Use of a term in this document should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

Naming of particular products or brands should not be seen as endorsements.

You are strongly recommended to take a backup of your system before major installation and backups at regular intervals.

1.3. New Versions

The latest version of this mini-HOWTO will always be made available in my homepage (many thanks to Peaceful Action for hosting my homepage) in a variety of formats:

1.4. Credits

I am extremely grateful to the howtos[NO_SPAM]@frodo.hserus.net list members for their support, especially to USM Bish.

The members of the discuss@linmodems.org list have been very helpful too, specially in the initial phase of the howto-writing. I am also extremely grateful to Phil Richard Burchill, Rajesh Fowkar, KV Pham, Bram Vonk, Derek Cordeiro, Steven Sangster and Andrew Kar (akar) for their valuable suggestions and corrections.

The sgml-stuff has been done with the help of the template written by Stein Gjoen, Gregory Leblanc and Greg Ferguson. I am also indebted to Greg Ferguson for cleaning up the mess I had made with Docbook :-).

1.5. Feedback

If you have any comments, criticisms, ideas, additions, corrections, then please do mail them to . But for technical queries, we suggest that you ask at the discuss@linmodems.org mailing list.


Please do not mail me with your problems. You will NOT get any answer. For answers ask at discuss@linmodems.org.

1.6. Translations

1.7. Conventions used in this document

We have used a number of special formatting to indicate warning messages, commands, filenames, computer outputs etc.

Bash commands

bash$ ls

















Computer Output

no such file or directory


#! /bin/bash

Large Computer Outputs

logfile begins